Background: Urologic emergency refers to any urologic condition that requires urgent medical attention. These urogenital problems may present as urinary tract obstruction and/or urinary tract infection resulting in renal compromise and sepsis.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of neonates who presented with urological emergencies between January 2015 and December 2019 at the pediatric surgery unit of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTH) Enugu, Nigeria. Diagnosis of urological emergency was made based on clinical and investigative findings.
Results: A total of 255 neonatal surgical emergencies were seen during the study period; urological emergencies in neonates accounted for 102 (0.4%) of the cases. More males were affected and the mean age of the neonates was 7 days. Urinary retention and paraphimosis were the most and least common diagnosis in the patients respectively. Urethral catheterization was the most performed procedure and circumcision was the least performed. Urethrocutaneous fistula and wound infection accounted for most of the post-operative complications. Ninety-four (92.2%) neonates achieved full recovery and were discharged home. Six (5.8%) neonates required repeat surgery. There was no mortality.
Discussion: Neonatal urological emergencies represent an integral part of pediatric surgical practice and these emergencies are not uncommon. Neonatal urological emergency is a regular referral from peripheral hospitals to the tertiary hospitals.
Conclusion: Neonatal urological emergencies refer to problems of the urinary and genital system in neonates that require immediate intervention. Prompt and adequate treatment by well-trained providers minimizes complications and maximizes good outcome.